The technology in industrial machine building is changing every day, with the engineers and technologist coming up with the best way to make industrial machines operations to be effective, reliable, and automatic. A lot has changed in the last few years. First it was manual technology, later it became semi-automatic technology, and currently fully automated technology.
Recent reports in scientific discoveries and improvements show that soon robots and other automatic machines will replace humans in industrial activities, which shall make the system to displace over 90% of human jobs globally, hence; place entrepreneurs in an advantage in the global economy. That is the reason, every engineer should strive to set-up an industry to be in better position ahead of global technology trends.
We will be dealing with the tools and principles that made such advancement in industrial machine technology possible. They are:
These drives are widely used to obtain infinity variable roles of rectilinear motion in machines tools. It includes a pump, a distributing device and operating cylinder with the piston rod.
The characteristic features of hydraulic used in the operation and control of machine tools are:
There is variable speed arrangement
The machine is safeguarded against breakdown and wear is minimized because all parts work under idol conditions in the transmission medium of all the mechanical parts like gears, screws, racks, and clinches are eliminated.
It is characterized by shock less motion.
The driving motion is achieved by the variable speed gear consisting of two parts, mainly by a pump and cylinder having a piston driven by oil circulated from the pump and controlled by piping and valve. Reasons for use of hydraulic machine tools are:
It is possible to transverse hydraulically operated slide or table against a positive stop with the assurance that the pressure exceeds a predetermined value.
It is simple and efficient to control both manually and hydraulically.
Faster reverse and acceleration rates are possible because of less inertia and cushioning effect of the fluid.
There is automatic protection against overload.
Safety is ensured by relief of valve
There is lower power consumption which varies automatically to meet resistance.
It is silent in operation with automatic lubrication by the transmission oil.
LIMITATIONS OF HYDRAULIC
Operations in machine tools,
- The occurrence of slip in hydraulic drives, though has the advantage in increasing the lifespan of cutting tools, but it has the disadvantage where it is desired to maintain a uniform rate transducers.
- The hydraulic drive cannot be employed in cases where accurate relation must be maintained between two coordinated motions such as is required when cutting screw thread.
- Effect of the temperature on the oil viscosity.
Characteristics of pneumatic technology;
Compressed air is already available in work with rather in-expensive equipment. Air driven but hydraulically control circuit mitigates some of the shortcomings of compressed air.
Air is admitted with the oil tank at a pressure of 0.4 to 0.5N/mm. consequently, oil will pass through the pipe line and check valve to the left of the right end of the cylinder will be released to the atmosphere. When the tool slide is to be advanced to the work, a three way air is admitted to the right not the oil tank.
In the mechanical drive technology, the transmission elements will determine and depend upon the type of conversion needed between the drive shaft and driven shaft.
Gears play lots of roles when it comes to mechanical drive technology, this is because it helps for drive conversion.
Belts and pulleys also contributes immensely to mechanical drive technology, such can be seen in modern automobile engines.
Cams and linkages also acts as part of the mechanical power transmission technology.
Electronic transmission technology is among the trending technology in the modern designs of robots, and industrial machines. The reason behind it, is the ability of electronic devices to be used in automation jobs and the use of an electric powered motor to drive industrial machines.
Sensors are part of devices for electronic technology, among others such as; transducers, transistors, microchips, and other electric devices. When it comes to power drive, different types of electrically driven motors contribute to electronic technology.
Characteristics of electronic technology:
It can be programmed.
It has more micro parts than other technologies.
It cannot operate without electric supply either DC or AC.
It is usually attached or incorporated into other technology for higher efficiency.
It can operate with low noise.
And so many other characteristics.
These technology has done us a lot of good in bringing the world into its new industrial age, which is believed that artificial intelligence is coming even further to replace human jobs through the use of robots and other automated industrial machines, we are looking forward to such age.