In what seems like a technological witchcraft, modern machines have evolve to the level of using artificial intelligence in the form of robots, industrial machines, CNC machines, and advanced drones, etc. the details of how it came about, when it started, who are those behind this great invention had not be widely detailed or discussed extensively.
Though the early applications of artificial intelligence were not completely regarded as such rather, they were viewed as just an improvement in technology. Artificial intelligence had been incorporated into wide range of fields which includes medical diagnosis, stock trading, and toys, before its modern use for robots control. During the early use of the technology, it was not fully viewed and recognized as artificial intelligence until the modern machines started using the technology to outperform humans.
HOW IT ALL STARTED
Its modern use started before the 21st century, when Alan Turing picked language in his famous Turing test intended to define the features of human beings for its basis. The test highlighted crucial features of human beings and their abilities which were used for comparative analyses to determine the success of the existing machines and how much human being abilities they were able to perform. Despite its low recognition, the early machines were found to have accomplished significant percentage of human being abilities, with that a clear picture of future abilities needed from machines were drawn which aid the scientists to have areas of focus that led to the modern improvements and creation of a program or programs that can be called artificial intelligence.
However, in 2003 Jim Gray of Microsoft suggested that Turing Test should be extended to speech understanding, speaking and recognizing of objects, and behavior. That also placed even more challenge to the scientists for further researches of which their benefits are the advanced artificial intelligence system seen today in modern machines and the possible AGI in the future.
Despite the modern AI in machines, some modern advanced electronic games and computer applications have artificial intelligence in-built. Below are the broad classes of outcome for an AI test:
- Optimal: it is not possible to perform better (note: some of these entries were solved by humans)
- Super-human: performs better than all humans
- High-human: performs better than most humans
- Par-human: performs similarly to most humans
- Sub-human: performs worse than most humans
HISTORY OF HUMAN-LEVEL ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
The artificial general intelligence (AGI) is a term that represents the full ability of machines to carry out every function or work that human being would have to do. It is an advanced level of artificial intelligence where machines will have the exact knowledge and understanding like humans. In the year 1965, a pioneer on Artificial intelligence and an economist Herbert A. Simon predicted that machines will be capable of doing any work a man can do within the next twenty years, though the prediction seems to be inaccurate but the reality is not far from the present achievements in engineering science. According to Marvin Minsky prediction in 1970, he said “within a generation …the problem of creating artificial intelligence will substantially be solved”. These predictions are possible but the time allocated to them have not proved to be accurate. Based on four polls conducted in 2012 and 2013, the arrival of AGI would likely be within 2040 and 2050 according to experts’ median response. However, the polls cannot give a concrete time when full AI will be in existence but scientists and engineers know it will be possible.
WHY EVERYONE IS AFRAID OF THE INCREASING DEVELOPMENT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
The researchers had revealed good reasons many people are afraid of the AI which is based on the possible human extinction. According to press release by the world economic forum, robots with AI may replace humans in over 50 crucial jobs before the year 2030, the record is not just terrifying but the possibility of further improvement in the AI for the next 20 years which is 2050 may have such robots taking on all the works and things humans are supposed to do.
So, the fear of losing ones’ job, fear of machine competitions, fear of dominance, fear of higher IQ and the possibility of storing human private information and secret videos by such robots, etc. had made some to fear that future robots may become spies to humans and making the world to have no secret if such robots can store the videos and voice conversations of their surroundings for a particular period of time and retrieve any of them whenever necessary. Some believe the existence of artificial general intelligence machines could lead to global catastrophe, but few have actually reasoned on the beneficial side of such technology which may include drastic reduction of crime and easy apprehension of criminals.
If human can possibly create machines more intelligent than them, it means the machine could start controlling humans and possibly become masters instead of servants according to AGI online argument. The argument emphasized that humans dominate other species in the earth due to their brain super distinctive capabilities, so if humans create super intelligent machines like robots, perhaps; the machines could turn and start controlling humans and possibly dominate. Though the view had been viewed as a science fiction, but can the AGI machines get to that level?
A lot of funding are going into the research and development of AI machines due to the perceived benefits by the investors, which is probably for services and industrial production purposes and these investors may have no negative thought of their uses because it is believed that every AI machine manufacturer should place a limit to the level of the programming languages and take full responsibility of any negative actions involving humans carried out by such machine.
Though modern AI machines, like the Sophia humanoid robot and animal robots have not shown any sign of negative impact or being superior in intelligence than humans, the scientists had earlier predicted that the new machine languages and their learning in the form of storable programs could make future machines to become super intelligent the fear of being out of human control still remain the bases of arguments in the engineering field.
According to an overview written in that regard, it is believed that a well-programmed humanoid robots could turn against human if unnoticed bugs and system updates failure develop in their memory, such could utter the entire program and cause the robot to misbehave and possibly become disobedient to commands. Beyond the science fiction, can that actually be possible?
THE POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES OF THE ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
SECURITY: despite the good number of AI robots in the modern technology, security still remain a big challenge but it can be said to have been minimized when compared to the 18th century and other centuries without the existence of A.I. robots. Digitalized Security cameras and surveillance drones had contributed to the improved security across the globe. The robotic system of internet networks has also made it possible to circulate any news across the whole world with a mobile phone in seconds. So if humanoid robots with artificial general intelligence can be stationed or be walking around the streets to detect actions and record them and automatically send them into the internet then, it is possible to know a criminal through the online video even before the law enforcement agencies could apprehend such person. Besides that, it can store conversations and may sound emergency alarm based on certain perceived evil conversations which can be made possible through the selection of certain keywords in the robot programs.
EFFECIENCY: Though bugs and errors are inevitable in written programs, some advanced super intelligence machines may be able to fix bugs and errors within their system through a troubleshooting method, the action will not only make them efficient but can reduce the fear of them misbehaving and turning against humans.
Their efficiency will become useful for industrial productions and services making them more useful than humans.
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND PRICE REDUCTION: If super intelligent robots are incorporated into the industrial automation system to help in mass productions across different factories in the world, there would be possible drop in the prices of goods. This can be possible based on the large number of products such system can produce in an hour thereby making productions higher than demands which will lead to price reduction to the benefit of humans. Besides, the industrialist has nothing to lose since only few workers salary will be paid and the entire production cost is low.
MATERIAL MANAGEMENT: Programmed systems had been seen to be more improvising in material usage than humans control systems. For instance, if a plastic industry needs 2 tons of pellets to make 500 pieces of plastic buckets per hour with 400kg of pellets wastage using human control mechanism, the automatic and robotic system can possibly use the 2 tons of pellets to make 800 pieces of plastic buckets per hour with 100kg material wastage. Such system will reduce cost of production and increase production output leading to favorable market competition and revenue to the investor.
THEY CAN BECOME HUMAN PET: Super intelligence robots and machines may turn and become friends to humans using any possible emotional analyses program, they can know when to crack jokes and when to read words of motivations, remind the human of the past memorable occurrences, etc. such robots and machines can possibly replace animal pets at our homes.
THE POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF THE ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
SECURITY: The need to improve in the global security may lead to the robots or machines exposing private videos and conversations behind closed doors to the whole world within few seconds through the internet system, without any knowledge that it is wrong. Celebrities and prominent personalities may find it very difficult to cope.
CONTROL: If not properly programmed, the machines may develop bugs and become uncontrollable or possibly turn against humans.
SUPER-INTELLIGENCE: If the current science fiction becomes a reality, the possibility of such future machines to re-write their own programs based on perceived signals from sensors and possibly become super intelligent than humans in the process which could lead to the possible control of humans will become another challenge.
POSSIBLE ABUSE FROM CRIMINALS: Even if sanctions on certain machines and robots are to exist in the future, there are possibilities that some criminals can hire them to carry out crimes. It is believed that the world may decide to place sanctions on some models and programs on robots but such sanction may not actually be accepted by some scientists which may lead to their secret production if any interested investor shows up.
ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTIONS: If the population of AIG machines becomes more than humans, they can contribute to the daily electric power consumption since they will all depend on their rechargeable batteries. The electric power that would be use to sustain their existence and keep their batteries fully charged every 24 hours could add to extra megawatts in the global electricity production at power stations.
WHAT IS YOUR STAND ON ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE?
Having discussed the advantages and disadvantages, I will like this to become a public question, using the comment box, what do you think about the fiction of the possible artificial general intelligence in the future which will exceed the modern and upcoming artificial intelligence machines?
A mechanical engineer, an NDT inspector, Graphic designer & Web developer, I love blogging and sharing of knowledge for human intellectual development, especially relating to engineering fields, environment, and science trending updates.
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